From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Constantin Carathéodory  

Constantin Carathéodory


Born  13 September 1873 Berlin, German Empire 
Died  2 February 1950 (aged 76) Munich, West Germany 
Nationality  Greek 
Fields  Mathematics 
Institutions  University of Munich Ionian University of Smyrna 
Alma mater  University of Berlin University of Göttingen 
Doctoral advisor  Hermann Minkowski 
Doctoral students  Paul Finsler Hans Rademacher Georg Aumann Hermann Boerner Ernst Peschl Hans Rügemer Wladimir Seidel Nazım Terzioğlu 
Known for  Carathéodory theorems Carathéodory conjecture 
Origins
The Carathéodory family spent 1874–75 in Istanbul, where Constantin's paternal grandfather lived, while Stephanos was on leave. Then in 1875 they went to Brussels when Stephanos was appointed there as Ottoman Ambassador. In Brussels, Constantin's younger sister Julia was born. The year 1895 was a tragic one for the family since Constantin's paternal grandfather died in that year, but much more tragically, Constantin's mother Despina died of pneumonia in Cannes. Constantin's maternal grandmother took on the task of bringing up Constantin and Julia in his father's home in Belgium. They employed a German maid who taught the children to speak German. Constantin was already bilingual in French and Greek by this time.
Constantin began his formal schooling at a private school in Vanderstock in 1881. He left after two years and then spent time with his father on a visit to Berlin, and also spent the winters of 1883–84 and 1884–85 on the Italian Riviera. Back in Brussels in 1885 he attended a grammar school for a year where he first began to become interested in mathematics. In 1886 he entered the high school Athénée Royal d'Ixelles and studied there until his graduation in 1891. Twice during his time at this school Constantin won a prize as the best mathematics student in Belgium.
Studies and university career
Carathéodory studied engineering in Belgium at the Royal Military Academy, where he was considered a charismatic and brilliant student.University Career:
1900 Studies at University of Berlin. 1902 Completed graduation at University of Göttingen (1904 Ph.D, 1905 Habilitation) 1908 Dozent at Bonn 1909 Ordinary Professor at Hannover Technical High School. 1910 Ordinary Professor at Breslau Technical High School. 1913 Professor following Klein at University of Göttingen. 1919 Professor at University of Berlin 1919 Elected to Prussian Academy of Science. 1920 University Dean at Ionian University of Smyrna (later, University of the Aegean). 1922 Professor at University of Athens. 1922 Professor at Athens Polytechnic. 1924 Professor following Lindeman at University of Munich. 1938 Retirement from Professorship. Continued working from Bavarian Academy of Science
Doctoral students: Carathéodory had about 20 doctoral students among these being Hans Rademacher, known for his work on analysis and number theory, and Paul Finsler known for his creation of Finsler space.
Academic contacts in Germany: Carathéodory's contacts in Germany were many and included such famous names as: Minkowski, Hilbert, Klein, Einstein, Schwarz, Fejér. During the difficult period of World War II his close associates at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences were Perron and Tietze.
Academic contacts in Greece: While in Germany Carathéodory retained numerous links with the Greek academic world about which detailed information may be found in Georgiadou's book. He was directly involved with the reorganization of Greek universities. An especially close friend and colleague in Athens was Nicolaos Kritikos who had attended his lectures at Gŏttingen, later going with him to Smyrna, then becoming professor at Athens Polytechnic. Kritikos and Carathéodory helped the Greek topologist Christos Papakyriakopoulos take a doctorate in topology at Athens University in 1943 under very difficult circumstances. While teaching in Athens University Carathéodory had as undergraduate student Evangelos Stamatis who subsequently achieved considerable distinction as a scholar of ancient Greek mathematical classics.^{[1]}
Works
Real Analysis: He proved an existence theorem for the solution to ordinary differential equations under mild regularity conditions.
Theory of measure: He is credited with the Carathéodory extension theorem which is fundamental to modern set theory. Later Carathéodory extended the theory from sets to Boolean algebras.
Theory of functions of a complex variable: He greatly extended the theory of conformal transformation^{[4]} proving his theorem about the extension of conformal mapping to the boundary of Jordan domains. In studying boundary correspondence he originated the theory of prime ends.
Thermodynamics: In 1909, Carathéodory published a pioneering work "Investigations on the Foundations of Thermodynamics"^{[5]} in which he formulated the Laws of Thermodynamics axiomatically. It has been said^{[according to whom?]} that he was using only mechanical concepts and the theory of Pfaff's differential forms. But in reality he also relied heavily on the concept of an adiabatic process. The physical meaning of the term adiabatic rests on the concepts of heat and temperature. Thus, in Bailyn's survey of thermodynamics, Carathéodory's approach is called "mechanical", as distinct from "thermodynamic".^{[6]} Carathéodory's "first axiomatically rigid foundation of thermodynamics" was acclaimed by Max Born^{[why?]}^{[7]} but criticized by Max Planck.^{[8]}
In his theory he simplified the basic concepts, for instance heat is not an essential concept but a derived one. He formulated the axiomatic principle of irreversibility in thermodynamics stating that inaccessibility of states is related to the existence of entropy, where temperature is the integration function. The Second Law of Thermodynamics was expressed via the following axiom: "In the neighbourhood of any initial state, there are states which cannot be approached arbitrarily close through adiabatic changes of state." In this connexion he coined the term adiabatic accessibility.^{[9]}
Optics: Carathéodory's work in optics is closely related to his method in the calculus of variations. In 1926^{[10]} he gave a strict and general proof that no system of lenses and mirrors can avoid aberration, except for the trivial case of plane mirrors. In his later work he gave the theory of the Schmidt telescope.
Historical: During the Second World War Carathéodory edited two volumes of Euler's Complete Works dealing with the Calculus of Variations which were submitted for publication in 1946.^{[11]}
A conjecture: He is credited with the authorship of the Carathéodory conjecture claiming that a closed convex surface admits at least two umbilic points. As of 2007, this conjecture remained unproven despite having attracted a large amount of research.
See also
 Carathéodory's theorem (disambiguation)
 Borel–Carathéodory theorem
 Carathéodory–Jacobi–Lie theorem
 Carathéodory metric
 Carnot–Carathéodory metric
 Carathéodory's theorem (convex hull)
 Carathéodory's lemma
 Carathéodory kernel theorem
The Smyrna years
Carathéodory brought to Athens some of the university library and stayed in Athens, teaching at the university and technical school until 1924.
In 1924 Carathéodory was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Munich, and held this position until retirement in 1938. He afterwards worked from the Bavarian Academy of Sciences until his death in 1950.
Linguistic talent
Carathéodory excelled at languages, much like many members of his family did. Greek and French were his first languages, and he mastered German with such perfection, that his writings composed in the German language are stylistic masterworks.^{[13]} Carathéodory also spoke and wrote English, Italian, Turkish, and the ancient languages without any effort. Such an impressive linguistic arsenal enabled him to communicate and exchange ideas directly with other mathematicians during his numerous travels, and greatly extend his fields of knowledge.Much more than that, Carathéodory was a treasured conversation partner for his fellow professors in the Munich Department of Philosophy. The wellrespected, German philologist, professor of ancient languages Kurt von Fritz praised Carathéodory, saying that from him one could learn an endless amount about the old and new Greece, the old Greek language, and Hellenic mathematics. Fritz had numerous philosophical discussions with Carathéodory.
The Greek language was spoken exclusively in Carathéodory's house – his son Stephanos and daughter Despina went to a German high school, but they obtained daily additional instruction in Greek language and culture from a Greek priest. At home, they were not allowed to speak any other language.
Legacy
Known correspondence Carathéodory–Einstein can be seen as facsimile in Einstein Archives Online (11 items). Three letters concern mathematics and these are printed in vol.8 of Einstein's Collected Works (Princeton Univ. Press 1987) now freely available online.^{[15]}
In the town of Nea Vyssa, where Caratheodory's family came from, there is the unique Caratheodory's family museum. The museum is located in the central square of the town nearby the church and there are many personal items of Constantin as well as letters that he had changed with A. Einstein, for more information visit the original website of the club http://www.skaratheodoris.gr. On the other hand, the Greek authorities intended for a long time to create a museum honoring Karatheodoris in Komotini, a major town of the northeastern Greek region, which is more than 200 km far away for the town of Nea Vyssa where his family came from. On 21 March 2009, the museum "Karatheodoris" (Καραθεοδωρής) opened its gates to the public, in Komotini.^{[16]}^{[17]}^{[18]}
The coordinator of the Museum, Athanasios Lipordezis (Αθανάσιος Λιπορδέζης), noted that the museum gave home to original manuscripts of the mathematician of about 10,000 pages including correspondence of Carathéodory with the German mathematician Arthur Rozenthal for the algebraization of measure. Also visitors can view at the showcases the books " Gesammelte Mathematische Schriften Band 1,2,3,4 ", "Mass und Ihre Algebraiserung", " Reelle Functionen Band 1", " Zahlen/Punktionen Funktionen " and many more. Handwritten letters of C.Carathéodory to Albert Einstein, Hellmuth Kneser and photographs of the Carathéodory family are on display.
The effort to furnish the museum with more exhibits is continuous.^{[19]}^{[20]}^{[21]}